I am finding this very interesting due to the fact that I am mixing my love for history along with my love for food...
This is the oldest casserole-type recipe that I have found from the book Apicus (not to be confused with the gourmands Apicus, the book is assumed not to be written by any of the three gourmands named Apicus, but may be a treatise of a combination of the works that they have done in the name of gluttony)
PATINA DE PISCICULIS (Soufflee of Small Fishes)
(Apic. 4, 2, 30)
500g boiled fillet of small fishes or whole sardelles
150g dried raisins (sultanas)
1/2 tsp freshly ground pepper
1 tblsp Liebstoeckl
1 tblsp oregano
2 small diced onions
50ml Liquamen, or 1/2 tsp salt
Mix raisins, pepper, Liebstoeckl, oregano, onion, wine, Liquamen and oil
together and put in a casserole. Cook until done. Then put small boiled
fish fillets or boiled small whole fishes into it. Thicken with a bit of
cornstarch and serve.
It took a little bit of doing to decipher some of these ingredients but this is what I came up with and I may not be right, but this is as close as I could come...
---Liebstoeckl: In Latin it's called 'levisticum officinale'. The closest I could figure was Lovage in being that Lovage's stalks are eaten much like celery and the roots/seeds/flowers are used today mainly in confectionery.
-- Liquamen: a salty fish sauce. closely resembling Nahm Plah (Thai Fish Sauce)